Human Trafficking is a crime and a human rights violation. For a situation to be one of trafficking three distinct elements (act, means, purpose) must be fulfilled:
A child cannot consent to being trafficked.
- The ACT of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons must be done by
- A MEANS such as the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or the giving or receiving of payments and it must be for the purpose of
- EXPLOITATION i.e. sexual exploitation, labour exploitation or organ removal.
There is no requirement that a person must have crossed a border for trafficking to have taken place – it can and does take place within national borders.
The internationally agreed legal definition of human trafficking is set out in
- Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the UN Convention Against Transnational Organised Crime.
Where does it happen?
Trafficking is happening worldwide and it exists in Ireland also. People can be trafficked into different types of work including
Why does it happen?
Trafficking in human beings is a high profit–low risk crime based upon the principles of supply and demand. Criminal networks or individuals take advantage of a series of what are known as ‘Push and Pull’ factors, which explain why vulnerable individuals who lack opportunities and seek better living conditions in their own or a foreign country, end up being part of a human trafficking chain. This, in combination with the demand for cheap labour and sexual services, fuels human trafficking.